Sick Leopard Gecko

Imagine this scenario: you’ve just noticed that your beloved leopard gecko is sick. As a responsible pet owner, it’s natural to feel concerned and unsure about what steps to take next. In this article, we will explore the world of sick leopard geckos and provide you with valuable information to help you understand their symptoms, possible causes, and the appropriate actions to take. Don’t worry, by the end of this article, you’ll feel more knowledgeable and equipped to ensure the wellbeing of your sick leopard gecko.

Table of Contents

Symptoms of a Sick Leopard Gecko

Refusing to eat

One of the common signs that your leopard gecko may be sick is when it refuses to eat. The lack of appetite can be a cause for concern as it may indicate an underlying health issue. It is important to monitor your gecko’s eating habits and ensure that it is consuming an appropriate diet to maintain its health.

Weight loss

Weight loss in a leopard gecko can be indicative of a health problem. If you notice that your gecko is losing weight, it is important to investigate the cause and seek veterinary assistance if necessary. Rapid or significant weight loss can be a sign of a metabolic or digestive issue that requires medical attention.


A healthy leopard gecko is typically active and alert. If you observe that your gecko is becoming increasingly lethargic, spending more time hiding or inactive, it could be a sign of illness. Lethargy can be caused by various health conditions, and it is important to monitor your gecko closely and consult with a veterinarian if you’re concerned.

Abnormal shedding

Leopard geckos shed their skin periodically as part of their growth process. However, if you notice that your gecko is experiencing abnormal shedding, such as taking longer than usual, having difficulty shedding its skin, or incomplete shedding, it may indicate an underlying health issue. Abnormal shedding can be a symptom of various conditions, including dehydration or skin infections, and requires attention and care.

Swollen or sunken eyes

Swollen or sunken eyes in a leopard gecko are not normal and can indicate health problems. Swelling around the eyes may indicate an infection, while sunken eyes could be a sign of dehydration or illness. Monitoring your gecko’s eyes and seeking veterinary help if you notice any abnormalities is crucial to ensure its well-being.

Difficulty breathing

If your leopard gecko is having difficulty breathing, such as wheezing, gasping, or rapid breaths, it is important to seek immediate veterinary assistance. Difficulty breathing can be a sign of respiratory infections or other respiratory complications that require prompt treatment. Ensure that your gecko’s habitat is well-ventilated and free of any irritants that may affect its breathing.

Diarrhea or abnormal stools

Changes in your gecko’s stool, such as diarrhea or abnormal consistency, can be indicative of gastrointestinal issues. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and nutrient imbalances, so it is crucial to monitor your gecko’s stool and seek veterinary help if you notice persistent diarrhea or significant changes in its bowel movements.

Visible injuries or wounds

Visible injuries or wounds on your leopard gecko should be taken seriously. These can result from falls, fights with other geckos, or improper handling. It is important to assess the severity of the injury and seek veterinary care accordingly. Prompt treatment and proper wound care are essential to prevent infection and promote healing.

Mucus or discharge from mouth or nose

Any mucus or discharge from your gecko’s mouth or nose may indicate an infection or respiratory issue. Normal respiration should not involve mucus or discharge, so it is important to monitor your gecko’s respiratory passages and seek veterinary attention if you observe any abnormalities.

Changes in color or patterns

Leopard geckos can change their color or patterns depending on their mood and environment. However, drastic or sudden changes in color or patterns can be indicative of underlying health issues. If you notice significant changes in your gecko’s appearance, it is important to consult with a veterinarian to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Common Illnesses in Leopard Geckos

Metabolic Bone Disease

Metabolic bone disease is a common condition in pet leopard geckos. It is caused by a calcium and vitamin D deficiency, leading to weak bones and deformities. Symptoms include tremors, paralysis, and swollen limbs. Proper diet and supplementation, as well as adequate UVB lighting, are essential in preventing and managing metabolic bone disease.

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Parasitic Infections

Leopard geckos can be vulnerable to various parasites, including internal parasites like worms and external parasites like mites. These can cause digestive issues, weight loss, and general weakness. Regular fecal examinations and preventive measures, such as proper hygiene and quarantine protocols, can help protect your gecko from parasitic infections.

Respiratory Infections

Respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, can affect leopard geckos, especially if they are housed in environments with inadequate temperature and humidity control. Symptoms include difficulty breathing, wheezing, and nasal discharge. Prompt veterinary care, along with appropriate environmental adjustments, is crucial to treat and prevent respiratory infections.

Stuck Shed

Leopard geckos shed their skin regularly to accommodate their growth. However, sometimes they may experience difficulties in shedding, leading to a condition called stuck shed. This can cause circulation problems and skin infections. Proper humidity levels and providing a moist hide can help prevent stuck shed and aid in the shedding process.


Impaction occurs when a leopard gecko ingests a foreign object or has difficulties passing waste materials. This can lead to blockages in the digestive system, causing constipation, loss of appetite, and abdominal swelling. Proper substrate choice, appropriate feeding practices, and regular monitoring can minimize the risk of impaction.

Mouth Rot

Mouth rot, or infectious stomatitis, is a bacterial infection that affects the oral cavity and can cause pain, swelling, and a foul odor. Poor oral hygiene, inadequate nutrition, or injuries to the mouth can contribute to mouth rot. Veterinary treatment may involve cleaning and disinfecting the affected area, antibiotics, and improving overall oral health.

Tail Loss or Injury

Leopard geckos have a natural defense mechanism called autotomy, where they can detach their tails to escape from predators. However, tail loss or injury can also occur due to accidents, mishandling, or fights with other geckos. Monitoring and proper wound care are important to prevent infection and ensure proper healing.

Bladder Stones

Bladder stones can occur when the gecko’s diet lacks proper hydration or when they develop urinary tract infections. Symptoms include straining to urinate, blood in the urine, and discomfort. Veterinary diagnosis and treatment, along with adjustments to the gecko’s diet and hydration, are necessary to manage and prevent bladder stones.

Eye Problems

Leopard geckos can experience various eye problems, such as infections, injuries, and eye shedding issues. Symptoms include redness, swelling, discharge, or difficulty opening the eyes. Prompt veterinary attention is crucial to prevent long-term complications and maintain good eye health in leopard geckos.

Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

Leopard geckos are curious creatures and may ingest foreign objects, leading to gastrointestinal blockages. Symptoms include loss of appetite, abdominal swelling, and constipation. Preventive measures, such as minimizing the presence of small objects in the enclosure, and periodic monitoring can reduce the risk of gastrointestinal foreign bodies.

Causes of Leopard Gecko Sickness

Improper temperature and humidity levels

Leopard geckos require specific temperature and humidity levels to thrive. Incorrect temperature gradients and inadequate humidity can stress the gecko’s immune system and make them more susceptible to illness. Proper temperature and humidity regulation are essential aspects of leopard gecko care.

Incorrect diet and nutrition

A balanced diet is crucial for leopard gecko health. Feeding an improper diet, lacking essential nutrients, can lead to deficiencies and illness. It is important to provide a varied diet consisting of appropriate insects and vitamin/mineral supplements to ensure adequate nutrition for your gecko.

Inadequate enclosure setup

Leopard geckos need a suitable enclosure that provides enough space, hides, and appropriate substrate. An inadequately set up enclosure can result in stress and physical injury. Creating a comfortable and enriching habitat is essential to support the health and well-being of your gecko.

Poor hygiene and unclean habitat

Maintaining a clean and hygienic habitat is crucial in preventing illness in leopard geckos. Accumulated waste, bacteria, and parasites can lead to infections and disease. Regular cleaning and proper hygiene practices, such as disinfecting hides and accessories, are important aspects of maintaining a healthy habitat for your gecko.

Stressful environment

Leopard geckos are sensitive to stress, which can compromise their immune system and make them more susceptible to illness. Factors such as excessive handling, loud noises, or sudden changes in the environment can cause stress. Minimizing stressors and providing a calm and stable environment contribute to the overall health and well-being of your gecko.

Inadequate UVB lighting

Leopard geckos require UVB lighting to properly metabolize calcium and maintain their overall health. Inadequate UVB exposure can lead to metabolic bone disease and other health issues. Providing appropriate UVB lighting, along with a balanced diet, is essential in preventing UVB-related illnesses in leopard geckos.

Handling-related injuries

Improper handling techniques can cause injuries or stress to leopard geckos. Rough or excessive handling can result in dropped tails, fractures, or other physical damage. It is important to handle leopard geckos gently, supporting their bodies correctly, and minimizing handling sessions to prevent injuries and stress.

Inadequate socialization

Leopard geckos are solitary animals, but limited socialization can impact their behavior and well-being. Lack of interaction and stimulation can lead to behavioral issues and stress-related problems. Providing appropriate socialization and environmental enrichment are important in maintaining a healthy and happy leopard gecko.

Proper Care and Prevention

Maintaining appropriate temperature and humidity

To ensure the well-being of your leopard gecko, it is crucial to maintain appropriate temperature and humidity levels within its enclosure. Use a reliable thermometer and hygrometer to monitor the conditions regularly. The temperature gradient should range from 88-92°F (31-33°C) on the warm side and around 75-80°F (24-27°C) on the cool side. Humidity levels should be kept between 30-40%.

Providing a balanced diet

A varied and balanced diet is essential for leopard gecko health. Feed your gecko appropriately sized insects, such as crickets, mealworms, and dubia roaches. Dust the insects with a calcium and vitamin D3 supplement to ensure proper nutrition. Additionally, offer occasional treats like waxworms or superworms, but be mindful of moderation to maintain a balanced diet.

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Creating a suitable enclosure

Setting up a suitable enclosure is crucial for your leopard gecko’s well-being. Provide an appropriate-sized enclosure with secure lid or screen to prevent escapes or accidents. Include several hiding spots and decor to create a comfortable and enriching environment. Use a suitable substrate, such as reptile carpet or paper towels, to ensure easy maintenance and prevent impaction.

Regular cleaning and habitat maintenance

Maintaining a clean and hygienic enclosure is essential for preventing illness in leopard geckos. Clean the enclosure regularly, removing waste, uneaten food, and replacing soiled substrate. Disinfect hides and accessories periodically to minimize the risk of bacterial or parasitic infections. Regular habitat maintenance promotes a healthy living environment for your gecko.

Minimizing stress factors

Leopard geckos are sensitive to stress, which can impact their health. Minimize stress factors by providing a calm and stable environment. Avoid excessive handling, loud noises, and sudden changes in the enclosure. Provide adequate hiding spots and opportunities for your gecko to retreat and feel safe within its habitat.

Providing UVB lighting

Leopard geckos require UVB lighting to properly metabolize calcium and prevent metabolic bone disease. Invest in a quality reptile UVB light and ensure it is positioned correctly within the enclosure. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for the appropriate distance and duration of UVB exposure. Regularly replace the UVB bulb according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Handling leopard geckos safely

When handling your leopard gecko, it is important to do so with care and gentleness. Support its body and avoid squeezing or applying excessive pressure. Avoid handling when the gecko is shedding, stressed, or showing signs of illness. Minimize handling sessions to prevent unnecessary stress on your gecko.

Socializing leopard geckos properly

While leopard geckos are solitary animals, limited socialization can benefit their well-being. Spend time near your gecko’s enclosure, talking softly and providing visual stimuli. Avoid excessive handling or introducing unfamiliar geckos, as it can cause stress. Observe your gecko’s behavior for signs of comfort or discomfort during socialization efforts.

Regular veterinary check-ups

Regular veterinary check-ups are important for detecting and preventing potential health issues in leopard geckos. Schedule annual or biannual visits to a reptile-experienced veterinarian for a thorough examination and fecal analysis. Discuss any concerns or observations you have about your gecko’s health to ensure proactive care and management.

Quarantining new geckos

When introducing a new leopard gecko to your existing population, it is crucial to quarantine them for a period of time. Quarantine helps prevent the spread of potential diseases or parasites to your existing geckos. Keep the new gecko in a separate enclosure, monitor their health closely, and consult with a veterinarian before introducing them to the main enclosure.

When to Seek Veterinary Help

Persistent refusal to eat or extreme weight loss

If your leopard gecko consistently refuses to eat or experiences extreme weight loss, it is essential to consult with a veterinarian. These symptoms can indicate underlying health issues that require medical attention. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in preventing further complications.

Severe lethargy or weakness

Severe lethargy or weakness in a leopard gecko can be concerning and may signify an illness or injury. If your gecko is displaying signs of extreme fatigue or is unable to move normally, seek immediate veterinary assistance. Lethargy can be a symptom of serious health issues that require professional intervention.

Visible injuries or wounds

Visible injuries or wounds on your leopard gecko should be evaluated by a veterinarian. Severe wounds, fractures, or deep cuts require professional care to prevent infection and promote proper healing. Timely veterinary intervention can minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications.

Difficulty breathing

If your leopard gecko is having difficulty breathing, such as wheezing, gasping, or rapid breaths, it is an emergency situation that requires immediate veterinary attention. Difficulty breathing can be a sign of respiratory infections or other respiratory complications that require prompt diagnosis and treatment.

Persistent diarrhea or abnormal stools

Persistent diarrhea or abnormal stools can indicate gastrointestinal issues that require veterinary evaluation. Loose stools, blood in the feces, or changes in stool consistency should not be ignored. Consult with a reptile-experienced veterinarian to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Abnormal shedding that doesn’t improve

If your leopard gecko is experiencing abnormal shedding that does not improve with time, it may signify underlying health problems. Incomplete shedding, retained shed, or difficulties in shedding can cause discomfort and lead to further complications. Veterinary assistance may be necessary to address the issue and prevent potential infections.

Swollen or sunken eyes

Swollen or sunken eyes in a leopard gecko are abnormal and require veterinary attention. These symptoms could indicate eye infections, dehydration, or other health issues. Proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent further damage to the eyes and restore your gecko’s well-being.

Mucus or discharge from mouth or nose

Any mucus or discharge from your gecko’s mouth or nose may indicate an infection or respiratory issue. Normal respiration should not involve mucus or discharge, so it is important to consult with a veterinarian if you observe any abnormalities. Early intervention can prevent more severe respiratory problems.

Changes in color or patterns

Drastic or sudden changes in your gecko’s color or patterns can indicate underlying health problems. If you observe significant changes in coloration or patterns that are not related to normal mood or environmental changes, it is important to consult with a veterinarian for proper evaluation and guidance.

Any other concerning or unusual symptoms

If your leopard gecko exhibits any other concerning or unusual symptoms that are not mentioned here, it is important to trust your instincts and seek veterinary advice. Preemptive veterinary care can identify and address potential health issues before they escalate, ensuring the well-being of your gecko.

Veterinary Diagnosis and Treatment

Physical examination

A thorough physical examination is a fundamental step in diagnosing and treating a sick leopard gecko. The veterinarian will assess the gecko’s overall condition, check vital signs, and examine any specific areas of concern. This examination helps identify visible symptoms and guides further diagnostic procedures.

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Fecal analysis for parasites

Fecal analysis is commonly performed to identify internal parasites in leopard geckos. A sample of the gecko’s feces is examined under a microscope for the presence of parasites such as worms or protozoa. Appropriate deworming medications or treatments are then prescribed based on the results.

Blood tests

Blood tests may be necessary to assess the overall health of a sick leopard gecko. These tests can provide valuable information about organ function, nutrient levels, and presence of any underlying infections. Blood samples are typically obtained through a small needle inserted into a vein, and the results help guide treatment decisions.

X-rays or imaging

X-rays or other imaging techniques, such as ultrasound or radiography, may be used to evaluate the internal organs and skeletal structure of a sick leopard gecko. These diagnostic tools help identify any abnormalities, fractures, or other issues that may not be visible during physical examination.

Culture and sensitivity tests

If an infection is suspected, culture and sensitivity tests may be performed to identify the specific bacteria or fungi causing the problem. This information helps determine the most effective course of treatment, as different bacteria may respond differently to antibiotics or other medications.

Medications for specific illnesses

Once a diagnosis is made, specific medications may be prescribed to treat the underlying illness. These medications can include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or pain relief medications. It is important to follow the veterinarian’s instructions regarding dosage and administration to ensure the best possible outcome.

Changes in diet or supplementation

In some cases, changes in diet or supplementation may be recommended to address specific health issues. For example, calcium or vitamin D3 supplementation may be adjusted to manage metabolic bone disease. The veterinarian will provide guidance on the appropriate diet and supplementation plan based on the gecko’s condition.

Surgery or wound care

Depending on the nature and severity of the illness or injury, surgical intervention or wound care may be necessary. Surgery can involve procedures such as removing bladder stones or repairing deep wounds. The veterinarian will determine whether surgery is required and provide post-operative care instructions.

Environmental modifications

To aid in the recovery and ongoing management of a sick leopard gecko, environmental modifications may be recommended. This can include adjusting temperature and humidity levels, improving habitat setup, or implementing additional enrichment activities to reduce stress and promote overall well-being.

Follow-up care and monitoring

Follow-up care and monitoring are crucial in ensuring the success of treatment and the ongoing health of your leopard gecko. The veterinarian may schedule additional visits to assess progress, adjust medications, or perform further diagnostic tests. Regular communication with the veterinarian fosters a collaborative approach to your gecko’s care.

Home Care for a Sick Leopard Gecko

Isolate the sick gecko

When a leopard gecko is sick, it is important to isolate it from other geckos to prevent the spread of illness. Set up a separate enclosure with the appropriate temperature, humidity, and hiding spots to help the gecko recover in a stress-free environment.

Ensure appropriate temperature and humidity

Maintain appropriate temperature and humidity levels in the isolated enclosure to support the healing process. Use a reliable thermometer and hygrometer to monitor the conditions consistently. Mimic the temperature and humidity requirements similar to a healthy leopard gecko’s habitat.

Offer a variety of nutritious food

Provide a variety of nutritious and easily digestible food options for the sick gecko. Offer appropriate-sized insects, such as gut-loaded crickets or mealworms, dusted with calcium and vitamin supplements. If necessary, offer small amounts of baby food or reptile-specific recovery diets recommended by the veterinarian.

Administer prescribed medications

If the veterinarian prescribes medications for your sick gecko, it is crucial to administer them as instructed. Follow the dosage and administration instructions carefully to ensure the best possible outcome. If you have any concerns or difficulties with medication administration, consult with the veterinarian for guidance.

Provide a comfortable and stress-free environment

Create a comfortable and stress-free environment for the sick gecko to aid in its recovery. Choose appropriate hides and decor to provide security and create a soothing atmosphere. Minimize disturbances and avoid excessive handling to reduce stress on the gecko.

Monitor symptoms and progress

Regularly monitor the gecko’s symptoms and progress while it is recovering at home. Observe any changes in eating habits, bowel movements, energy levels, or other symptoms. Note any improvements or worsening of the condition and communicate these updates to the veterinarian during follow-up appointments.

Maintain proper hygiene and cleanliness

Maintain proper hygiene and cleanliness in the gecko’s enclosure to prevent the risk of secondary infections. Clean soiled substrate, feces, and uneaten food promptly. Disinfect hides and accessories periodically as recommended by the veterinarian. Maintain a clean and odor-free environment for the gecko’s well-being.

Handle the gecko gently and minimally

While the gecko is recovering, handle it gently and minimally to minimize stress and further discomfort. Avoid excessive handling sessions and only provide necessary care, such as administering medications or cleaning the enclosure. Prioritize the gecko’s comfort and well-being throughout the recovery period.

Potential Complications and Prognosis

Chronic health problems

In some cases, a sick leopard gecko may develop chronic health problems that require ongoing management. These can include metabolic bone disease, respiratory issues, or gastrointestinal disorders. Regular veterinary care, appropriate environmental adjustments, and long-term medication or supplementation may be necessary.

Severe infections

Severe infections can pose significant risks to the well-being of a leopard gecko. Despite appropriate treatment, some infections may be difficult to eradicate completely. Close monitoring, aggressive treatment, and regular veterinary care are crucial in managing severe infections and preventing potential complications.

Organ damage or failure

Depending on the severity and nature of the illness, leopard geckos may experience organ damage or failure. This can occur in cases of advanced metabolic bone disease, severe infections, or prolonged illness. Timely intervention, proper treatment, and ongoing veterinary care can help manage or prevent organ-related complications.

Malnutrition and metabolic imbalances

If a leopard gecko experiences prolonged appetite loss or difficulty in eating, it can lead to malnutrition and metabolic imbalances. This can exacerbate the existing illness and compromise the gecko’s overall health. Providing appropriate nutrition and supplementation, along with veterinary guidance, is essential in preventing malnutrition-related complications.

Death in severe cases

In severe cases, despite best efforts and proper care, a sick leopard gecko may succumb to its illness. Some health conditions, injuries, or infections can be difficult to manage or treat successfully. It is important to be aware of the potential risks and outcomes, but also remember that early intervention and proper care significantly improve prognosis.

Early intervention and proper care improve prognosis

Early intervention, proper veterinary care, and diligent home care significantly improve the prognosis for sick leopard geckos. Timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and proactive management can help prevent complications and enhance the chances of a successful recovery. Regular veterinary check-ups and adherence to proper care guidelines are crucial in ensuring the long-term health and well-being of your gecko.


Leopard geckos require diligent care and attention to maintain their health. Recognizing the symptoms of a sick gecko and seeking timely veterinary help are crucial for their well-being. Proper care and prevention, including maintaining appropriate temperature and humidity, providing a balanced diet, and creating suitable enclosures, contribute to the overall health of leopard geckos. In times of illness, home care measures can aid in their recovery. While complications and prognosis may vary, early intervention and proper care significantly improve the chances of a successful outcome. By prioritizing the health and well-being of your leopard gecko, you can ensure a fulfilling and rewarding experience as a pet owner.